International Journal of English and Applied Linguistics (IJEAL) <p><strong>International Journal of English and Applied Linguistics (IJEAL) </strong>is an International Journal that is published three times a year, namely in <strong>April, August, </strong>and <strong>December</strong>. IJEAL aims to promote research in the field of English Education and Applied Linguistics which focuses on publishing quality papers about the latest information about language, linguistics, literature, arts, education, and other related fields. Submitted papers will be reviewed by the Journal and Association technical committee. All articles submitted must be original reports, previously published research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be reviewed by colleagues. Articles sent to the IJEAL journal may not be published elsewhere. The manuscript must follow the author guidelines provided by IJEAL and must be reviewed and edited. IJEAL is published by <strong>Information Technology and Science (ITScience)</strong>, a Research Institute in Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia.</p> ITScience (Information Technology and Science) en-US International Journal of English and Applied Linguistics (IJEAL) 2797-9482 Liberal Feminism Value in Britney Spears’s Selected Songs: Stronger and My Prerogative <p>Literary work is part of human thought expressed in written form or spoken. A heartfelt Literary work is one that is honest, true to experience and human nature, and therefore can tell the truth about the human experience. All written materials are included in the definition of literature. It includes a wide range of general categories such as novels, dramas, and poems, and the song is also included in poem form. Many approaches can be used to analyze a literary work, one of which is a feminist approach. Feminism can be used to critique literary works. Literature can be analyzed from the perspective of women using a feminist approach. There are many types of feminism that have been present in today's era, one of which is liberal feminism. Liberal feminism is freedom as personal autonomy and political autonomy. The purpose of this study is to analyze the liberal feminism values contained in the chosen song of the singer Britney Spears by using the theory of Baehr and Amy (2021). The method used in this research is a qualitative method. The results of this study indicate that the values of liberal feminism found are being free of the limits set by patriarchal paternalistic and moralistic laws (3 data), and having access to options (2 data). Also, in this research, the researcher found the most dominant liberal feminism value in Britney Spears’s selected songs is which has to be free of the limits set by patriarchal paternalistic and moralistic laws 3 data<strong>.</strong></p> Eriani Indah Lestari Nurochman Nurochman Copyright (c) 2022 Eriani Indah Lestari, Nurochman Nurochman 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 2 2 200 206 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1500 A Syntactic Analysis of Noun Phrase through “Hansel and Gretel” Short Story To 1st Semester of Accounting Students at University of Bina Sarana Informatika <p>Languages all over the world have their own grammar for constructing words and their components. The aim of the research is to recognize, classify and analyze noun phrases by reading Hansel and Gretel short story. A noun phrase is a part of the syntax. The syntax is a part of Linguistics. It has meaningful elements together to form words, words together to form phrases, phrases together to form clauses, clauses together to form sentences, and sentences together to form texts. Noun phrase has some aspects; they are identifier, adjective, noun modifier, quantifier, preposition phrase, participle clause, conjunctions, and indefinite clause. Hansel and Gretel short story was used as the research instrument about noun phrases. The method used to do the research was descriptive qualitative. The participants of this research are the 1<sup>st</sup> semester of accounting students at the University of Bina Sarana Informatika. The results of this research are: there are 25 noun phrases, 16 noun phrases are about rules 1, determiner + headword, meanwhile 9 other noun phrases are about common noun phrase, found in Hansel and Gretel short story.</p> Paramita Kusumawardhani Ani Rakhmanita Copyright (c) 2022 Paramita Kusumawardhani, Ani Rakhmanita 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 2 2 207 215 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1501 An Analysis of Teacher’s Strategy in Teaching Speaking at SMA Negeri 9 Haltim <p>This research is aimed at describing the strategies used by the English teacher of the students of SMA Negeri 9 Haltim in teaching speaking. Based on pre-observation, the researcher found that SMA Negeri 9 Haltim applied teaching strategies in the teaching and learning process, especially in speaking and it makes the students easier to understand speaking English. This study was conducted by using a descriptive qualitative design. The subjects of this research were the English teacher and the students of SMA Negeri 9 Haltim. The data was gained by observation, interview, and documentation. The results indicated that there are five strategies in teaching speaking which applied by the English teacher. They are drilling, simulation and role play, the portrait interview, creative tasks, and group work. There were also two principles applied by the teacher to develop vocabulary mastery and fluency, the first is the activity is meaning-focused, and the second is the learners take a part in activities where all the language items are within their previous experiences. The teacher applied those strategies to help the students become active so that they can understand the lessons and also enjoy the teaching and learning process.</p> Syamsia Junaidi Hamdi Copyright (c) 2022 Syamsia, Junaidi Hamdi 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 2 2 216 225 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1569 Translation Procedures and Equivalence in Children Bilingual Short Story <p>This study was aimed at finding the procedures and meaning equivalence of translation. This study focuses on Indonesian- English translation found in a collection of animal short stories for children. The research method used is descriptive qualitative. Newmark’s theory of translation procedures was used to analyze the translation procedure in the story. Another theory that was used is Nida’s theory of meaning equivalence. The first step in analyzing the data started by reading the entire short story and marking the difference between the Indonesian and English words. Each representative theory then analyzed the data. After being analyzed, the result is displayed in tables and explanations. Based on the study that has been done, it was found that there were 13 out of 16 translation procedures. The most commonly used translation found in this study is Literal Translation with 40 occurrences, and the least procedure used in this study was Descriptive Equivalent with 2 occurrences. In addition, this study also found Nida's Formal and Dynamic Equivalent in terms of meaning equivalence. The most commonly used meaning equivalence found in this study was Dynamic Equivalent. This study showed that procedures of translation and meaning equivalence are deeply tied since the selection of translation procedures will determine the category of its equivalence.</p> Eka Putri Septarani Copyright (c) 2022 Eka Putri Septarani 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 2 2 226 233 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1576 Investigating Toefl iBT Writing Tasks (A Case-Study of EFL Learners) <p>According to (Sharpe, Orientation to the TOEFL iBT, 2019), the TOEFL iBT assesses the test-taker’s ability to understand and use English for academic purposes. The TOEFL has four sections: listening, reading, speaking, and writing, each with its own set of instructions. The writing section assesses test-takers' ability to write essays in English. They write one essay about an academic topic (integrated task) and one essay about a familiar topic during the test (independent task). The academic essay requires them to relate information from a reading passage to information from a listening passage. The researchers conducted a similar study to learn about EFL learners' challenges when taking the test to improve TOEFL iBT writing instruction strategies. This study aims to investigate the errors and to discover if there are any new findings, as diverse techniques are found in participants' writing tasks, which could provide more general information for researchers and readers. The results showed that the typical grammar errors were almost in line with the previous studies. Another comparison was that Khoshkou and Keyvanfar did not provide missed information and conclusion insertions as other typical mistakes in the integrated task. However, the other errors—plagiarism, adding one's ideas, and question-addressing—are consistent with the study's findings. It suggests the researchers, as TOEFL iBT tutors, emphasize paraphrasing techniques and for participants with weaker English proficiency need more practice time to advance.</p> Nurhayati S. Rahmi Aulia Nurdini Copyright (c) 2022 Nurhayati S., Rahmi Aulia Nurdini 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 2 2 234 244 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1586 Category Shift Translation of Noun Phrase in The Cruella Movie Script and Its Translation <p>Each language has its own structure of grammar. The Indonesian language has a different rule of grammar structure from English. As Catford stated, there is a correlation between translation and linguistics. Shifting translation is helpful in learning how a unit of different levels can be brought down to create interesting structures. This paper is aimed to find the category shift of noun phrases in the Cruella movie script and its translation. The method used is a qualitative method. This paper is used Catford’s shift translation theory to analyze the data. As the result, there are 54 data for structure shift, 3 data for a class shift, 7 data for unit shift and 21 data for the intra-system shift. There are also 2 data which represent untranslated noun phrases. The total data found is 87 data.</p> Anggi Ratna Ichwan Suyudi Copyright (c) 2022 Anggi Ratna, Ichwan Suyudi 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 2 2 245 254 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1505 Address Terms in Emily In Paris Season 1 Episode 1: A Conversation Analysis <p>This study entitled "Address Terms In Emily In Paris Season 1 Episode 1: A Conversation Analysis" was restricted to the sociolinguistics area regarding address terms. This study aimed to analyze the type of address terms and the social factors that influence the use of address terms by the characters in "Emily in Paris" Season 1, Episode 1. This study is essential to be conducted because by knowing the use of address terms, people will learn how to address people adequately in communication. This research used a theory by Wardhaugh (2006) about addressing terms as the leading theory and by Braun as the supporting theory. For the method, the descriptive qualitative method was used. According to the findings of this study, there are three types of addressing terms and five social factors associated with the addressing terms found in the "Emily in Paris" Season 1 Episode 1 movie manuscript. The documentation and observation method were used to find the data. The three types of addressing terms were the use of a name, intimacy expression, and title with respect, where the most common address term is using the name. At the same time, five factors of addressing terms were Particular Occasion, Gender, Age, Occupational Hierarchy, and Degree of Intimacy.</p> Kadek Intan Adinda Lesmana Copyright (c) 2022 Kadek Intan Adinda Lesmana 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 2 2 255 262 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1577 Benefits of Drilling Repetition in Enhancing Second Language Learners’ Speaking Ability <p>This paper aims to analyze the significance of drilling repetition in enhancing second language learners' speaking ability. In learning a second language, some learners may overcome problems in saying words or sentences. In some cases, they also mispronounce the words. These can occur because of some problems, such as a lack of confidence, a lack of practice, and less feedback from the teacher. Based on this issue, this paper is concerned with the discussion of how the drilling technique can be a solution to the problem and its benefits to the students' speaking performance. This paper uses qualitative research analysis and a descriptive method to discuss the finding. The equipment that was implemented for this paper is journals and books. The benefits of drilling repetition are providing learners with intensive practice in hearing and saying particular word phrases. They can help with memorization and automation of common language patterns, providing the opportunity for learners to get immediate feedback, assisting learners in noticing the correct form or pronunciation of a word or phrase, which makes the learners speaking ability accurately, and building confidence. This paper finally points out that the benefits of adopting drilling repetition in enhancing second language learners' speaking ability are helpful to building learners' confidence and fluency in speaking the second language.</p> Melania Mendrofa Marchellina Wijaya Copyright (c) 2022 Melania Mendrofa, Marchellina Wijaya 2022-08-06 2022-08-06 2 2 263 270 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1583 Discovering Rhetorical Strategies in the Islamic Discourse of Tuan Guru Bajang Muhammad Zainul Majdi <p>A leader is prevalently a communicator in an organization, no matter the rule. A good leader typically has good communication skills, which allow them to elicit participation from the people they oversee. In particular, Muslim scholars are also pioneers of social and religious growth. Thus, competent communication efficiency is essential for them to lead people to a better way of life by part of Allah SWT. However, it is still found vast of Muslim scholars, which is uneven Islamic teaching presentation quality. Thus, the goal of this study is to come up with a decent speech that anaesthetizes the audience. This was accomplished by examining the use of hidden rhetoric in the address of TGB. Muhammad Zainul Majdi, the best Indonesian preacher in 2021. As a result, this qualitative study uses discourse analysis to examine his two speeches as samples and data sources. The result indicated that TGB. Muhammad Zainul Majdi applied a variety of hidden rhetorical techniques. In his Safari Da'wah Nusantara and national addresses, Muhammad Zainul Majdi used similitude, reverence, expertise, intelligence, and goodwill to demonstrate credibility or ethos and persuade the audience. Love or friendship versus hatred, Fear versus Confidence, Indignation versus Pity, and Admiration versus Envy are some of the pathos he uses. In terms of logos, He deals with three issues: parables, enthymeme, and data.</p> Muhammad Rifqi Subakti Bahtiar Hishamuddin Salim Ari Safar Wadi Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Rifqi Subakti Bahtiar, Hishamuddin Salim, Ari Safar Wadi 2022-08-06 2022-08-06 2 2 271 280 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1588 EFL Students’ Perceptions on Using Picture Strip Story in Learning Speaking Skills <p>Using a method in the teaching-learning process that is by the condition of students to maximize the purpose of English learning. In the Indonesian context, limited time to learn speaking skills for EFL students is still one of the issues found in the classroom. The method that can be used to maximize the process of teaching and learning is picture strip story. This research aimed to find out the EFL students' perception of using picture strip stories in learning speaking skills. The participants of this research consisted of twelve students. The writer collected data by using focus group discussions with a semi-structured interview. The researcher used data display, condensation, drawing, and verification in data analysis. The result of this research was positive perceptions from EFL students toward using picture strip stories in learning speaking skills, such as improving students' confidence to speak with others, developing the students' proficiency in language competence, improving students' motivation, and adding the eggar the students to learn speaking skills.</p> Bambang purnama Roi Boy Jon Ari Safar Wadi Copyright (c) 2022 Bambang purnama, Roi Boy Jon, Ari Safar Wadi 2022-08-06 2022-08-06 2 2 281 286 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1589 Textual Error Analysis on the Use of Simple Present Tense in Writing Descriptive Text <p>Finding out the frequency, kind, causes, and effects of linguistic failures is the process of error analysis. This study aims to pinpoint students' mistakes when using the simple present tense to write a descriptive text. To complete the investigation, the researcher uses the qualitative approach. Students' mistakes affect the descriptive English content. Twenty junior high school students from west Jakarta were given writing prompts. Their text demonstrates how their sentences lost all of their original meaning. When asked to create an English descriptive text, they encountered challenges. Following an investigation of the students' English descriptive texts, twenty errors have occurred in the simple present tense; error of omission, error of selection, error of addition and error of ordering.</p> Fadilah Fadilah Copyright (c) 2022 Fadilah Fadilah 2022-08-07 2022-08-07 2 2 287 294 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1640 Exploring Students’ Anxiety in Online and Offline English Language Classrooms <p>This study investigates the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Score (FLCAS) of students in English classes before the pandemic (offline class) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (online class) in a private university in Jakarta, Indonesia. There were 145 participants in total, 67 of which attended the offline class of English 1, while 78 others attended the online class of English 2. The 33 items of the questionnaire were adapted from FLCAS and were analyzed by three aspects: Communication Apprehension, Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Test Anxiety. The questionnaire items were translated into Indonesian and distributed online using Survey Monkey. The study used Independent Samples t-test to test the hypothesis, and the writer analyzed items to categorize the FLCA scores into high and low anxiety levels of each anxiety category. The writer found the FLCAS difference between offline and online classes insignificant (p &gt; 0.05). Furthermore, The writer revealed that Fear of Negative Evaluation, especially judgment from classmates, was the dominant aspect that caused anxiety among students of both classes. On the other hand, it was also found that learners from both classes had no problem having their teacher correct their errors when using English. </p> Stefanus Prima Budi Riyanto Dang Hartono Copyright (c) 2022 Stefanus Prima, Budi Riyanto, Dang Hartono 2022-08-10 2022-08-10 2 2 295 300 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1630 A Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis of Garnier Green Beauty Advertisement <p>This study investigates how a multinational cosmetic company uses its advertising to promote green cosmetics in Indonesia. Using Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis (MCDA), the study analyzes how Garnier utilized linguistics features and discourse strategies and positioned their customers in the Garnier Green Beauty advertisement. The analysis revealed that Garnier employed some linguistic features (e.g., positive adjectives, pronouns, repetitions, etc.) and scientific-sounding words as a discourse strategy in the advertisement. It was also found that Garnier made a deliberate marketing decision to employ advertising, positioning their customer as empowered actors to create socio-environmental change. The findings also discuss the features distinguishing green cosmetics advertisements from typical ones.</p> Dang Arif Hartono Stefanus Angga Badara Prima Wisnu Sakti Dewobroto Copyright (c) 2022 Dang Arif Hartono, Stefanus Angga Badara Prima, Wisnu Sakti Dewobroto 2022-08-16 2022-08-16 2 2 301 312 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1654 The Persuasive Techniques of Starbucks and Burger King Advertisements on Instagram Posts <p>This study aimed to describe the persuasive techniques of Starbucks and Burger King advertisements on Instagram posts. The categories of persuasive techniques were referred to as Lamb's theory (2014). By using the descriptive qualitative method, the researchers collected one hundred data on Starbucks and Burger King advertisements on Instagram posts. Then, the data were analyzed by classifying and interpreting them into correct categories. The result of the study showed that: 1) Fifty data were taken from Starbucks advertisements on Instagram posts by the distribution as follows: 3 data of Alliteration, 3 data of Connotation, 6 data of Colloquial Language, 5 data of Evidence, 4 data of Hyperbole, 9 data of Inclusive Language, 6 data of Imagery, 4 data of Pun, 4 data of Repetition, 4 data of Rhetorical Question and 2 data of Simile, 2) Fifty data were taken from Burger King advertisements on Instagram posts by the distribution as follow: 4 data of Connotation, 4 data of Colloquial Language, 5 data of Evidence, 4 data of Hyperbole, 5 data of Inclusive Language, 6 data of Imagery, 2 data of Metaphor, 3 data of Pun, 5 data of Repetition, 10 data of Rhetorical Question and 2 data of Simile. Starbucks dominantly used Inclusive Language in their advertisements, while Burger King dominantly used Rhetorical questions in their advertisements. Both of them chose different persuasive techniques to represent their products.</p> Rizky Vita Losi Takkas Josua Bernardo Todo F. B. Sibuea Rizki Ananda Copyright (c) 2022 Rizky Vita Losi, Takkas Josua Bernardo, Todo F. B. Sibuea, Rizki Ananda 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 2 2 313 324 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1676 The Implementation of Self-Directed Dialogue to Improve Students’ Speaking Ability <p>The purpose of this study was to find out the improvement of students speaking ability through the implementation of the self-directed dialogue technique, and student activities when the Self-directed Dialogue was applied to English subjects in the first grade of MA Darussalam, Beremi for the 2021/2022 academic year. In this study, the researcher used classroom action research as a research design by employing observation, tests, and documentation as techniques to gain the data. Observations were made to determine the application of self-directed dialogue techniques during the teaching and learning process while tests were used to measure student achievement in speaking ability. The subjects of this study were students in first grade of MA Darussalam Bermi with 21 students in the class. Researchers used qualitative and quantitative data analysis in calculating and analyzing data. The results of this study indicate that the self-directed dialogue technique can improve students' speaking ability. This can be seen from the results of a significant increase in each cycle. The score before implementing the technique was 48, the result of post-test 1 was 74.43, and post-test 2 was 84.43. This means that the students' speaking ability increases after applying the self-directed dialogue technique in the first grade of MA Darussalam Bermi in the 2021/2022 academic year.</p> Melia Nova Syarifudin Syarifudin Soni Ariawan Copyright (c) 2022 Melia Nova, Syarifudin Syarifudin, Soni Ariawan 2022-09-06 2022-09-06 2 2 325 331 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1671 A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Pantene Advertisement <p>Advertisement is one mass media used to inform, persuade and change people's perspective on the world. This research aims to analyze Pantene advertisement’s textual features, discourse practice, and socio-cultural practice. The method of this research is a qualitative approach. This research uses a critical discourse analysis approach with Fairclough’s three-dimensional model. The data source was taken from videos in Pantene advertisements with the English Version and their translation taken from YouTube. The result of this research is in the textual feature of Pantene Advertisement using a first personal pronoun, additive conjunction, positive adjective, and negative adjective. In the discourse practice, the advertisers create the advertisement to show that they are trying to display the beauty standards that have been circulating in society regarding how the ideal hair should be. And the targets of this Pantene advertisement are teenagers who want to have perfect hair, which is to have long, black, and shiny hair. In the situational level, Pantene advertisement was launched because many people have not maintained hair conditions, and in the institutional, the advertisers present various innovations in their production. This is assumed to have implications for what the community wants. In the social feature, Pantene contributes to the circulation of beauty products, especially in the hair care section. Pantene consistently innovates following developments in society, so many products from Pantene are in demand to beautify the appearance of their hair. Advertisers show their power by advertising the products they make.</p> Allikathus Rizky Laily F Copyright (c) 2022 Allikathus Rizky Laily F 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 2 2 332 341 10.47709/ijeal.v2i2.1683